Medicinal Plants of Gor

~Items listed in the dark font are those which do not appear to be referenced in any of the books of Gor. Encourage use of sparingly. They will be changed when suitable evidence of their existance on Gor is available.~

Description ~ Its foot and a half branchy stems are covered with a fine, silky down and terminate in spikes of yellow flowers. Both the flowers and the notched leaves give off a faint characteristic lemony scent when crushed. After the flowers fade they give place to tiny clinging "burrs" which will quickly adhere to clothing if a person brushes by the plant in a hedgerow.
Area(s) Found ~ A hardy perennial, its natural habitat is woods and fields, but it takes to cultivation easily.
Use(s) ~ Used to make a delicious "spring" or "diet" drink for purifying the blood. It is considered especially useful as a tonic for aiding recovery from winter colds and fevers as it clears away obstructions by opening the natural passages of the body. As agrimony also posses an astringent action, it is frequently used in alternative medicine as an herbal mouthwash and gargle ingredient, and is applied externally in the form of a lotion to minor sores and ulcers. It has also been recommended, as a strong decoction, to cure sores, blemishes, and pimples. Agrimony is a diuretic and can also be used to treat anemia, enlarged hearts, stomachs and lungs, acute diarrhea, digestive trouble, indigestion, ulcers, gout, kidney and bladder disorders, rheumatism, and jaundice and other liver ailments. Use agrimony externally for athlete’s foot, drawing out splinters / thorns, and/or as a substitute for tea, a fragrant table beverage (leaves). A yellow dye may be extracted from the plant. Agrimony should not be used in cases of constipation.
Reference ~ Unknown

Allspice (aka "Pimento")
Description ~ Familiarly called Allspice, because it tastes like a combination of cloves, juniper berries, cinnamon and pepper, is the dried full-grown, but immature fruit an evergreen tree about 30 feet high. Leaves are oval. Flowers form in small whitish-yellow clusters which are quickly succeeded by the greenish berries. Berries turn brown when dried.
Area(s) Found ~ Sub-tropics to Tropics.
Use(s) ~ Allspice is used in toiletries and liqueurs, and it used to be added to flannel to make a plaster for treating neuralgia or rheumatism. The eugenol content (which is more characteristic of cloves) can provide a mild analgesic effect. Both pimento and the oil possess aromatic, carminative, and stimulant properties. The action of pimento is similar to that of cloves, and it may therefore be employed for the same purposes; thus to relieve flatulence, check vomiting, and as an adjunct to other medicines to cover their nauseous taste, and to prevent griping, etc.
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ Anise is a dainty, white-flowered annual, about 18 inches high, with secondary feather-like leaflets of bright green. The fruit, or so-called seeds. When threshed out, the seeds may be easily dried in trays, in a current of air in half-shade, out-of-doors, or by moderate heat. When dry, they are grayish brown, ovate, hairy, about one-fifth of an inch long, with ten crenate ribs and often have the stalk attached. 
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate to tropics. 
Use(s) ~ The “oil of anise” is often used in candies and gives its distinctive taste to some liqueurs. Used in drinks such as tea, anise is reputable in hard dry coughs where expectoration is difficult. Greatly used in lozenges or by smoking for this purpose. Anise has been reported to have numerous medical benefits, but there is no evidence that it offers any pharmacologic benefit. It is thus a flavorful digestive spice that may be soothing, stimulating or carminative (relieving gas) in different individuals, and it is a popular taste in drinks, confections and simple proprietary medicines. Oil of anise possesses the same aromatic, carminative, and stimulant properties as anise fruits. The oil extracted from the seed is said to prove capital bait for mice, if smeared on traps. It is poisonous to pigeons. Oil of Anise is an excellent antiseptic and works well against insects, especially when mixed with oil of Sassafras and Carbolic oil.
Reference ~Unknown

Description ~ No specific 'Gorean' description offered. The apricot tree is deciduous and grows to a height of 10-15 meters. Bark on the trunk is dark brown and rough, with new growth being smoother and light brown often with an orange tinge and white flecked appearance. White or pink flowers which emerge before the leaves, which are smooth, large and roundish, with a pointed tip and finely serrated margin. The fruit has a thin outer layer of blushed downy skin enclosing sweet edible yellow flesh around a large smooth stone (pit) which further encases a kernel. 
Area(s) Found ~ Apricots require a warm climate, needing cool to cold winters to break dormancy and warm to hot dry summers to mature fruit with minimal disease problems. 
Use(s) The kernels are used in oils, perfumes, cosmetics and for medicinal purposes as a source of vitamin B17 and utilized in alternative medicine for cancer therapy. The seeds must be baked prior to direct consumption, since apricot kernels can be poisonous if ingested raw in large quantities. The fruit prevents plaque-deposits from building up in the arteries, helps to strengthen immune systems and is beneficial to eyes, skin, hair, gums and various glands. The cobalt and copper found in apricots, and especially their high iron content are beneficial in fighting anemia, and make this fruit an irreplaceable ingredient of many baby foods. Apricots are also an excellent source of potassium and good diuretics. Apricots help to maintain body fluid balance by normalizing blood pressure and heart function. Boron, which apricots are also rich in, has been identified as one of the main factors for the prevention of osteoporosis, by helping post-menopausal women retain their estrogen levels. 
Reference~ I brushed away two sellers of apricots and spices.
~ Tribesmen of Gor, page 45

Description ~ No Gorean description given. Appears to be the equivalent of the Earthen Arrowleaf plant. Arrowhead is an emergent aquatic plant with arrow-shaped leaves and stalks of white flowers, both rising from underground rhizomes which produce tubers the size and shape of a chicken egg. The leaves of this plant are arrowhead-shaped, rounded or somewhat pointed at the tip. Leaves are dull dark green on the surface and veined pale green on the underside. The leaves show large variation in width and shape. Flowers are arranged in long-stalked clusters with flowers in whorls of three. Arrowleaf fruit is a globular cluster of sharp-beaked, flattened, winged seed. 
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate zones. The plants typically occupy freshwater wetlands, streamsides, ditches, floodplains, low-lying areas with wet mud, and the borders of lakes or ponds; tolerating water up to 50 cm deep. 
Use(s) ~ Given to or washed over infants suffering from fever. Other medicinal uses of the plants include grinding the roots to make a tea for indigestion or to make a poultice for wounds, making a tea from the leaves as a remedy for rheumatism, and to use in a poultice to stop milk production. Though arrowhead tubers are not widely utilized as a food source, they can be harvested and prepared by baking or boiling. They are said to have a taste and texture like potatoes, but a bit sweeter.
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ Basil plants have opposite leaves and square stems, growing approximately 1-1 ½ feet tall. Leaves are typically a broad oval shape and release a distinctive fragrance when rubbed. There are many cultivars of basil; some with ruffled leaf edges, some with purple leaves, some with very small leaves, and some with different scents, to name a few. Flowers are white or purplish in color, 1/2 inch long, and divided into an upper and lower section.
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate to tropic zones.
Use(s) ~ Both the leaves and the essential oils distilled from the flowering plants are used as flavoring agents. Used as a tonic against rheumatism and eases stomach pains. 
Reference ~ Unknown

Bay Leaf (aka Laurel Leaf)
Description ~ Bay is a perennial, evergreen shrub, reaching about 5 feet in height, with oval, glossy dark green leaves and aromatic fruits. The fruit of the bay tree is a glossy blue-black berry ½ inch in diameter, but the leaves are the commodities of value.
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate to tropics.
Use(s) ~ Used externally for sprains and bruises. Berries can also be used medicinally, but are extremely volatile and great care must be taken to ensure proper use. Note that essential oil and any part of the berries should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. Bay leaves are soothing when added to a bath, or in an herbal tea which is supposed to calm the stomach.
Reference ~ "Young men and women of the city, when coming of age, participate in a ceremony which involves the swearing of oaths, and the sharing of bread. fire and salt. In this ceremony the Home Stone of the city is held by each young person and kissed. Only then are the laurel wreath and the mantle of citizenship conferred. This is a moment no young person of Ar forgets. The youth of Earth have no Home Stone. Citizenship, interestingly, in most Gorean cities is conferred only upon the coming of age, and only after certain examinations are passed. Further, the youth of Gor, in most cities, must be vouched for by citizens of the city, not related in blood to him, and be questioned before a committee of citizens, intent upon determining his worthiness or lack thereof to take the Home Stone of the city as his own. Citizenship in most Gorean communities is not something accrued in virtue of the accident of birth but earned in virtue of intent and application. The sharing of a Home Stone is no light thing in a Gorean city."
Slave Girl of Gor, page 394

Bergament (Bergamot)
Description ~ Bergamot is a highly decorative plant with flamboyant, long-lasting fragrant flowers that are very attractive to bees. This beautiful perennial grows to a height of about 3 feet with fantastic red flowers throughout the summer. The green leaves are highly aromatic.
Area(s) Found ~ Wild bergamot is often found in meadows with sandy soil and dry conditions. A common north country wildflower. Look for wild bergamot in rich soils at the bases of prairie hills and in valleys. 
Use(s) ~ The plant is noted for its fragrance, and is a source of oil of thyme.Bergamot can be used for colds, bronchial complaints and nausea. It contains thymol, a powerful, aromatic antiseptic. Bergamot is an excellent medicinal herb tea to relieve nausea, flatulence, menstrual pain and vomiting. Bergamot is an important ingredient in potpourris. The oil is used in perfumes and aromatherapy with lemon/orange overtones. 
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ A strong, coffee-like drink, prepared like expresso, made from the fruits of an evergreen shrub. The plants will grow to about 10 feet if given ample root room, but can be pruned if this is too big for the allotted space. The tree has dark shiny green leaves and fragrant white flowers of this very unique, ornamental plant. The fruits are red when they ripen in the fall, with a sweet pulp surrounding the bean. Each berry has two beans. The tree's fruit does not all ripen at one time. In fact it will have blossoms and berries in various stages of ripening. Only the ripe berries can be picked. The berries cannot be picked when green since they will not ripen once picked. 
Area(s) Found ~ Thentis. Blackwine is a rare drink. 
Use(s) ~ Even simply the aroma of blackwine may have anti-oxidant properties, leading to longer life for cells. Blackwine is a strong stimulant (obviously) and diuretic. The frequent user can develop a tolerance effect to higher doses. Most, but not all, of blackwine's pharmacological impact comes from its high concentration of caffeine a psychoactive drug. Caffeine, depending on an individual's biological makeup and peculiar sensitivity, can be a mood elevator and mental energizer. Improves mental performance in some. An emergency remedy for asthma. Dilates bronchial passages. Mildly addictive. Triggers headaches, anxiety and panic attacks in some. In excess, may cause psychiatric disturbances. Promotes insomnia. Blackwine stimulates stomach acid secretions. Can aggravate heartburn. Promotes bowel movements in many, causes diarrhea in others. Caffeine may promote fibrocystic breast disease in some women.
Reference ~ I had heard of blackwine, but had never had any. It is drunk in Thentis, but I had never heard of it being much drunk in other Gorean cities….Then I picked up one of the thick, heavy clay bowls…It was extremely strong, and bitter, but it was hot, and unmistakably, it was coffee.
~ Assassin of Gor, pages 106

Brak Bush
Description ~ No Gorean description given. Probably looks like Earth’s Acacia – a thorn tree of grassland savannas which can grow up to 20 meters tall. Its numerous branches spread out into a flat and rounded top. Each branch has many pairs of thorns with grey-green leaves. Flowers are yellow or cream colored and grow on spikes just above the thorns. These flowers turn into seed pods about eight inches long and 2-3 inches wide, yellowish to brown in color and flat.
Area(s) Found ~ Chiefly of the tropics and subtropics, brak bushes are characteristic of grassland savanna vegetation and can live through long periods of drought. They tend to grow in sandy places where there is only between 12 to 15 inches of rain a year. 
Use(s) ~ Leaves chewed and used as a laxative. Branches are nailed over doors during the Waiting Hand to discourage bad luck from enter the house in the New Year. When the rainy season ends the trunk of the brak bush begins to ooze sap, or gum. This gum is used to make gum Arabic, a compound used in making medicine, most notably in creams used to treat skin inflammations and ailments of the respiratory and urinary tracts. Gum Arabic is also used for coughs, sore throats, eyewash, diarrhea, and dysentery and may be used as a flavoring in some drinks.
Reference ~ Almost all doors, including that of the House of Cernus, had nailed to them some branches of the Brak Bush, the leaves of which, when chewed, have a purgative effect. It is thought that...the branches of the Brak Bush discourage entry of bad luck into the houses of the citizens....
~Assassin of Gor, 16:211

Cacao Tree (aka Chocolate)
Description ~ The Cacao is a small (4-8 m tall) evergreen tree that produces clusters of pinkish flowers directly on the trunk and older branches. Cacao produces a huge berry called a cacao pod which is about the size of a hand, usually egg or melon-shaped. The golden-red to purple fruit pods turn brown when ripe. Inside, each pod contains about 30 almond-shaped cacao beans. It takes about 15 pods to make one pound of cocoa.
Area(s) Found ~ Tropics. The trees need warm, humid weather and loose, rich soil. They like shaded sunlight.
Use(s) ~ Chocolate, contents of which may stimulate the brain. Has been generously praised as containing anti-oxidants that may prevent degenerative diseases. Mashed seeds can be used in beverages, spices, pasta and confectionery foods. Chocolate itself does not possess all of the following medicinal properties, but rather, the parts of the Cacao tree, when prepared by an expert will have these properties. The seeds, fruits, leaves and bark can be used as an antiseptic, cardiotonic, diuretic, dentifrice, emmenagogue, parasiticide, vasodilator and vulnerary to treat conditions such as Alopecia, burn, cough, dry lip, eczema, eye conditions, headache, high blood pressure, kidney conditions, listlessness, parturition, ilatory, rheumatism, saran, snake bite and wounds. Cacao butter, a yellowish white solid with odor of cacao, which has a low melting point and is easily melted by human body temperature, is used in cosmetic ointments, for coating pills and suppositories, as an excellent emollient, to soften and protect chapped hands and lips, for inflammation of the liver or other organs, mental stupor, and as a febrifuge, especially in serious illness. The bark may be used in soap making.
Reference ~ "This is warmed chocolate," I said, pleased. It was very rich and creamy. 
"Yes, Mistress," said the girl. 
"It is very good," I said. 
"Thank you, Mistress," she said. 
"Is it from Earth?" I asked. 
"Not directly," she said. "Many things here, of course, ultimately have an Earth origin. It is not improbable that the beans from which the first cacao trees on this world were grown were brought from Earth." 
"Do the trees grow near here?" I asked. 
"No, Mistress," she said. "We obtain the beans, from which the chocolate is made, from Cosian merchants, who, in turn, obtain them in the tropics." 
~ Kajira of Gor, page 61

Description ~ Caradmom is the seed yielded from a large perennial. It has a large, fleshy rhizome, and the alternate, lanceolate leaves are blades from 1 to 2 1/2 feet long, smooth and dark green above, pale, glaucous green and finely silky beneath. The flowering stems spread horizontally near the ground, from a few inches to 2 feet long, and bear small, loose racemes, the small flowers being usually yellowish, with a violet lip. The fruits are from 2/5 to 4/5 of an inch long, ovoid or oblong, bluntly triangular in section, shortly beaked at the apex, pale yellowish grey in color, plump, and nearly smooth. They are three-celled, and contain in each cell two rows of small seeds of a dark, reddish-brown color.
Area(s) Found ~ Sub-tropics to tropics.
Use(s) ~ The aromatic extract contains many essential oil chemicals, some of which have a smell like that of camphor. Medically, it is used mainly as a flavor and an aid to digestion. It is used more prosaically to treat colds, bronchitis, fevers, inflammatory conditions of the oropharynx, and liver complaints. There is no evidence to support any of these uses. Its exotic qualities have suggested it could be used as a stimulant and aphrodisiac, and has been used as a perfume and breath freshener. The effects of cardamoms are those of a very agreeable aromatic; they are used partly on account of their flavor, and partly for their carminative and stimulant properties. They are, however, rarely prescribed alone, but commonly either as adjuvants or correctives of cordial, tonic and purgative medicines.
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ Grows 12 to 15 inches and produces bright green, carrot-like leaves. Flowers are greenish-white clusters.
Area(s) Found ~ Most zones. Very versatile plant, but struggles in dry areas. The plant appears to die during winter, but returns in the spring.
Use(s) ~ Carraway seeds can be prepared as a tea or chewed directly as a breath freshener, to stimulate the appetite, aid digestion and relieve flatulence.
Reference ~ Unknown

Cayenne Pepper
Description ~ Cayenne pepper is a stimulating herb made from the dried pods of chili peppers and is well known for its pungent taste and smell. It is a very variable species growing to 1.5 meters high. The shape of the leaves vary according to cultivar from broadly rounded to elongated with a tapering tip. The color ranges from dark to light green and occasionally even purple. Single, white flowers usually occur at the ends of branches. Fruits, or the pepper, vary in size, shape, color and pungency. They range from the mild, fleshy, sweet peppers used as vegetables and to make paprika, to the tiny, fiery, finger-like chili peppers. Seeds are white or cream, almost circular and flat.
Area(s) Found ~ Tropics. 
Use(s) ~ The main medicinal properties of cayenne are derived from a chemical called capsaicin. In addition to adding heat to the pepper, capsaicin acts to reduce platelet stickiness and relieve pain. Cayenne is used worldwide to treat a variety of health conditions, including poor circulation, weak digestion, heart disease, chronic pain, sore throats, headaches and toothaches. When taken internally, cayenne soothes the digestive tract and stimulates the flow of stomach secretions and saliva. These secretions contain substances which help digest food. Helps dissolve blood clots, opens up sinuses and air passages, breaks up mucus in the lungs, acts as an expectorant or decongestant, helps prevent bronchitis, emphysema and stomach ulcers. Also a potent painkiller, alleviating headaches when inhaled, and joint pain when injected. Hot paprika made from hot chili peppers is high in natural aspirin. Cayenne put on food speeds up metabolism, helping to burn off calories. Chili peppers do not harm the stomach lining or promote ulcers. 
Reference ~ Some of the peppers and spices, relished even by children in the Tahari districts, were sufficient to convince an average good fellow of Thentis or Ar that the roof of his mouth and his tongue were being torn out of his head.
~ Tribesman of Gor, page 46

Description ~ The edible cluster of long, green stalks grows upright from the crown of the celery plant. The individual stalks can range from yellow-green to dark green and are cupped like a gutter. Ridges run the length of the celery stalk. At the top of the stalks are leaves that look similar to Italian parsley. Celery leaves are finely divided and light to dark green in color. The leaflet margins are lobed and toothed.
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate to Tropics.
Use(s) ~ Leaves and root; both are used as vegetable or spice. Celery fruits, often termed seeds, are a strong though rather uncommon spice. Celery find its main use in the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout. Containing apiol, the seeds are also used as a urinary antiseptic. Celery is a good cleansing, diuretic herb, and the seeds are used specifically for arthritic complaints where there is an accumulation of waste products. The seeds also have a reputation as a carminative with a mild tranquilizing effect. The stems are less significant medicinally.
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ The true or common chamomile is a low-growing plant, creeping or trailing, its tufts of leaves and flowers a foot high. The root is perennial, jointed and fibrous. The stems are hairy and freely branching, covered with leaves which are divided into thread-like segments, the fineness of which gives the whole plant a feathery appearance. The blooms appear in the later days of summer and are borne solitary on long, erect stalks, drooping when in bud. With their outer fringe of white ray-florets and yellow centers, they are remarkably like the daisy. The fruit is small and dry, and as it forms, the hill of the receptacle gets more conical. The whole plant is downy and grayish-green in color. 
Area(s) Found ~ It prefers dry commons and sandy soil, and is found mostly in temperate climates. 
Use(s) ~ One of the safest medicinal herbs, chamomile is a soothing, gentle relaxant that has been shown to work for a variety of complaints from stress to menstrual cramps. This herb has a satisfying, applelike aroma and flavor, most often taken as a delicious, mild therapeutic tea. Concentrated extracts of chamomile are also added to healing creams and lotions or packaged as pills and tinctures. Although best known as a muscle relaxant and antispasmodic, chamomile also has antiseptic and anti-inflammatory capabilities. The plant's healing properties come from its daisylike flowers. Chamomile may be used internally or externally. Chamomile's mildly sedating and muscle-relaxing effects can help those who suffer from insomnia to fall asleep more easily. Chamomile's anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic actions relax the smooth muscles lining the stomach and intestine. The herb can therefore help to relieve nausea, heartburn, and stress-related flatulence. Used as a lotion or added in oil form to a cool bath, chamomile eases the itching of eczema and other rashes and reduces skin inflammation. It can also speed healing and prevent bacterial infection. Cooled chamomile tea can be used in a compress to help soothe tired, irritated eyes and it may even help treat conjunctivitis. A chamomile mouthwash can help soothe mouth inflammations and keep gums healthy. Chamomile is so gentle and safe at recommended dosages that it can be used long-term without risk. The effects of chamomile tea are cumulative. To get the maximum benefit, it should be drunk regularly, even if the person is not suffering from a specific ailment, because each cup of tea prepared from chamomile flowers contains only a small percentage of the plant's therapeutic volatile oils. There are no known drug or nutrient interactions associated with chamomile. 
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ No specific 'Gorean' description offered. Deciduous tree of the dina family, which grows up to 20 meters tall. Cherry trees have a reddish brown trunk, with its bark breaking into horizontal stripes. The leaves appear after flowers, and are oblong or ovate, with a toothed edge. Flowers gathered in bundles of 2-6 at the end of long stems. Fruits are red skin and flesh around a small pit.
Area(s) Found ~ Isles of Tyros
Use(s) ~ Used as a diuretic, especially in cases of renal pain and failure and as a diuretic cherries may also help ease rheumatic illnesses such as gout, arthritis, rheumatism, etc. It fluidifies the blood and improves blood circulation, being very appropriate for the treatment of illnesses related with a faulty circulation such as hemorrhoids, ocular pressure, etc. Cardiotonic properties, making the heart muscle to contract more powerfully , so it has been used in cases of light heart weakness that don't require the use of foxgloves. External uses include a wash for skin diseases and to ease pain associated with PMS. As a food, cherries have very few calories but a richness of fiber, vitamins and minerals. A toxin in the seeds, flowers and leaves mixes with the saliva to become cyanide. 
Reference ~ With the tip of my tongue I touched her lips. Some slave cosmetics are flavored. "Does Master enjoy my taste?" she asked. "The lipstick is flavored," I said. "I know," she said. "It reminds me of the cherries of Tyros," I said.
~ Beasts of Gor, page 28

Description ~ Attains a height of about 2 feet. The finely, cut, lacy, almost fernlike leaves and delicate silvery, white flowers possess an odor and flavor very similar to that of tarragon. Tuberous-rooted varieties are grown and eaten as a vegetable, much like carrots. 
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate zones.
Use(s) ~ Lowers blood pressure, diuretic. These tender young leaves have been used in spring tonics for thousands of years. Dandelion, watercress and chervil are combined to combat the nutritive deficiency brought on by winter. This combination of greens is thought to rejuvenate the body. As with most herbs, chervil is an aid to sluggish digestion. When brewed as a tea it can be used as a soothing eye wash.
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ Chives grow in clumps, with their round, hollow, grass-like leaves reaching a height of 9 inches or so. The stems are firm, straight, smooth, and, like the leaves, bright dark green. The flowers, which bloom for two months in midsummer, form round deep purple or pink globes that make an attractive garnish.
Area(s) Found ~ Especially temperate, but will grow in most zones.
Use(s) ~ The tender leaves or the entire plant can be harvested at any time during the season and used fresh. The bulbs or dried leaves are seldom used, since only the fresh plant possesses the pleasant chive flavor. Chopped leaves have a more delicate flavor than onions and can be used with many foods and in many herb mixtures. Chive is an appetite enhancer, often used to battle Anorexia Nervosa and similar eating disorders. Antibiotic properties of this plant are attributed to the sulfur compounds. The oils of the plant seem to lower blood levels of low-density lipoproteins, the "bad" cholesterol that clogs artery walls. Chives contain some iron and vitamins (especially vitamin C), and are a mild antibiotic, and can also be used as a mild laxative.
Reference ~ Unknown

Cilantro and Coriander
Description ~ Cilantro is the leafy part; coriander is the seed. An annual, with erect stems, 1 to 3 feet high, slender and branched. The lowest leaves are stalked and pinnate, the leaflets roundish or oval, slightly lobed. The segments of the uppermost leaves are linear and more divided. The plant is bright green, shining, glabrous and intensely foetid. The flowers are in shortly-stalked umbels, five to ten rays, pale mauve, almost white, delicately pretty. The seed clusters are very symmetrical and the seeds fall as soon as ripe. The fruit are of globular form, beaked, finely ribbed, yellowish-brown 1/5 inch in diameter, with five longitudinal ridges, separable into two halves, each of which is concave internally and shows two broad, longitudinal oil cells. The seeds have an aromatic taste and, when crushed, a characteristic odor. 
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate zones.
Use(s) ~ The plants should be cut for seed when the fruits have turned brown and before much shattering has occurred. The flavor is not thoroughly developed until it is completely dry. The whole plant may be tied in bundles or spread on screens to dry, and should be separated by threshing and winnowing. The powdered fruit, fluid extract and oil are chiefly used medicinally as flavoring to disguise the taste of active purgatives and correct their griping tendencies. Good for digestion. The seed is used both whole and ground. The fresh leaves are also popular garnishes. Stimulant, aromatic and carminative. If used too freely the seeds become narcotic. Coriander and cilantro have been advocated for health purposes in folk therapies, however, no medical value has been adequately evaluated, and thus this popular herb/spice remains a cook’s ingredient, and is utilized as a manufacturer’s flavor, rather than being recognized as an herbalist’s medication. 
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ The Cinnamon tree is a tropical evergreen which grows up to thirty feet tall with ovalish leaves that can be four to seven inches long. The flowers are inconspicuous, and the branches of the yellowish flowers are usually longer than the leaves. These branches bear pointed black fruits from which cinnamon oil is extracted. The cinnamon sticks are made from the bark of the tree and are rolled naturally when the bark is sun-dried. 
Area(s) Found ~ Tropics.
Use(s) ~ Cinnamon is helpful as an aromatic used to heal the body and disguise the taste of medicines. Often cinnamon is used as a nonessential addition to other remedies, than as a remedy by itself. Often this is because cinnamon is a stimulant to other herbs and the body, enabling herbal remedies to work faster. When steeped in warm water, cinnamon tea harmonizes the flow of circulation, aids digestion, and helps the stomach to discharge gas. It reduces nausea and decongestion and leaves an appealing flavor in the mouth. Cinnamon tea soothes colds, nervous tension, and stimulates digestion, Cinnamon oil is used as a liniment to soothe headaches, rheumatic pains, body aches, and toothaches. These main properties of cinnamon are astringent, warming stimulant, carminative, antiseptic, antifungal, anti-viral, blood purifier, and digestive aid. Historically, some uses have included treatment of diarrhea, arthritis, menstrual cramps, heavy menstruation, and yeast infections. Cinnamon is a strong stimulator of insulin activity, thus potentially helpful for those with Type 2 diabetes. Cinnamon has a mild anti-coagulant activity. Cinnamon oil should never be ingested. 
Reference ~ "Do you smell it?" asked Ulafi. "Yes," I said. "It is cinnamon and cloves, is it not?" "Yes," said Ulafi, "and other spices, as well."
~ Explorers of Gor, page 98

Clover (Common Green/Red) Description ~ Clover is a low leguminous herb that has three, round leaves (like the club on a deck of cards) and flowers in dense heads. Leaves vary in color from green to red, while flowers are traditionally white or cream.
Area(s) Found ~ Clover grows best where summer temperatures are cool (not hot) and moisture is sufficient throughout growing period. 
Use(s) ~ The flowering heads of clover improves urine production, circulation of the blood and secretion of bile. They also act as detergent, sedative and tonic. Clover has the ability to loosen phlegm and calm bronchial spasms. The fluid extract is used as an antispasmodic and alterative. Effective in the treatment of skin complaints (especially eczema and psoriasis), cancers of the breast, ovaries and lymphatic system, chronic degenerative diseases, gout, whooping cough and dry coughs. 
Reference ~ I set her down on a bed of green clover. Beyond it, some hundred yards away, I could see the border of a yellow field of Sa-Tarna and a yellow thicket of Ka-la-na trees....
~Tarnsman of Gor, page 96

Description ~ Cloves are the immature unopened flower buds of a tropical tree which reaches heights of up to 45 feet. The bark is gray, the leaves are a shiny dark green, elliptical in shape and very fragrant. Small crimson flowers grow in triple clusters at the ends of branches. The fruit is a purple, one inch long drupe that resembles small nails with a tapered stem. The large end of the clove is the four-pointed flower bud. When fresh, they are pink, dried, they turn to a rust-brown color. The bouquet is distinctly pungent. 
Area(s) Found ~ Cloves grow in the tropics and best near the sea. Rainfall must be at least sixty inches per year and a dry season is needed for harvesting and curing.
Use(s) ~ Cloves contain an essential oil which is a very strong antiseptic. Clove oil is often applied directly to an aching tooth, bringing immediate relief. It is a strong stimulant and carminative and used to treat nausea, indigestion and dyspepsia. Clove may also be used as an anti-inflammatory against rheumatic diseases. Has an anti-coagulant effect.
Reference ~ "Do you smell it?" asked Ulafi. "Yes," I said. "It is cinnamon and cloves, is it not?" "Yes," said Ulafi, "and other spices, as well."
~ Explorers of Gor, page 98

Description ~ Costmary grows in clumps, 3 – 4 feet high and produces yellow, button-like flowers in loose clusters. The somewhat long leaves are entire, their margins finely toothed. The plants produce large clumps of long narrow leaves possessing a very agreeable minty odor and bitterish flavor. Late in the season small yellow rayless flowers are borne on flower stalks 4 to 5 feet in height.
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate to tropics.
Use(s) ~ On account of the aroma and taste of its leaves, Costmary was much used to give a spicy flavoring to ale. Used frequently for purposes where a pleasing scent is desired. Limited medical use as its astringent and antiseptic properties are only somewhat effective.
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ Cumin is the dried seed of an annual plant which is a member of the parsley family. The Cumin plant grows to about 1 to 2 feet tall and is harvested by hand. Its stem is slender and branching to about a foot in height; the leaves are laciniate with filiform segments; the flowers are small, white or pink, and borne in umbels. The so-called seeds are its fruits, which are achenes. These, which constitute the spice cumin, are fusiform or ovoid in shape, and compressed laterally. Cumin seeds looks similar to fennel seeds, but are smaller and darker in color.
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate to Tropics.
Use(s) ~ The seeds are the source of the flavor. They may be used whole or more likely ground. Cumin resembles other similar old spices, having been advocated for many medical indications. There is no evidence that it has useful properties other than being a spicy flavor with digestive benefits. Nevertheless, it is being evaluated for possible anticancer and antioxidant effects. Cumin is mildly stimulant, aromatic, and carminative.
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ No specific 'Gorean' description offered. Date trees are common as dense green groves at oases where their branches stretch high and their roots are deeply anchored in the earth. The trees grow between 40 and 100 feet tall. Only female date palms bear fruit, however, male trees that produce plentiful pollen are very precious, as the quality of the male pollen influences the size of the fruit and the rate at which it ripens. Traditonally cuttings of several pollen clusters from the male are inverted along clusters of the female flowers to encourage the best pollination. Approximately one month after pollination, small green fruits begin to appear on the female trees. As they grow during the summer months, the intense heat withdraws the moisture and some of the sugar from them. As the dates ripen, they go from green to either bright yellow or dark red in color (depending on variety) and finally a dark brown at harvest time. 
Area(s) Found ~ Tahari, desert regions
Use(s) ~ Dates have long been eaten by pregnant or nursing women to assure they are receiving adequate vitamins and to boost their energy. Dried, dates make an excellent supply of traveling food.
Reference ~ The principal export of the oases are dates and pressed-date bricks. Some of the date palms grow to more than a hundred feet high. It takes ten years before they begin to bear fruit. They will then yield fruit for more than a century. A given tree, annually, yields between one and five Gorean weights of fruit. A weight is some ten stone, or some forty Earth pounds.
~ Tribesmen of Gor, page 37

Description ~ The dill plant can grow from two to five feet tall and has a feathery, airy appearance. The green or blue-green dill leaves are feathery and soft. The leaves and seeds are flavorful seasonings. Dried dill leaves are commonly known as dill weed. Dill flowers are small, yellow, and arranged in umbrella-like clusters. Area(s) Found ~ Temperate.
Use(s) ~ Aids digestion and used to relieve mild bowel disorders in general. Dill seeds are used, as well as the dried or fresh leaves. Medically, it is extremely popular to relieve colic, flatulence and griping of infants and young children. There is nothing to support its long-time use for more significant effects, such as stimulating the flow of milk..
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ A small, lovely, multiply petaled flower, short-stemmed, and blooming in a turf of green leaves, similar to an Earthen rose although it is an exotic, alien flower. Sometimes referred to as the slave flower.
Area(s) Found ~ Northern temperate zones
Use(s) ~ Dina water may be used to cure all kinds of ailments, such as trembling, constipation, drunkenness, skin and throat infections and insomnia. Dina hips contain high levels of Vitamin C and dina hip tea is often recommended in pregnancy. Dina oil can reduce high cholesterol levels. Dina is additionally used in face toners and perfume and are one of the most effective anti-ageing ingredients.
Reference ~ own brand was the dina; the dina is a small, lovely, multiply petaled flower, short-stemmed, and blooming in a turf of green leaves, usually on the slopes of hills, in the northern temperate zones of Gor; in its budding, though in few other ways, it resembles a rose; it is an exotic, alien flower; it is also spoken of, in the north, where it grows most frequently, as the slave flower
~ Slave Girl of Gor, page 61- 62

Description ~ Fennel plant has four or five shoots and can grow to about four feet tall. The leaves are very pinnate, very feathery and are green with a hint of blue in color. The fruits are large and have a spicy licorice taste. The tops containing the seeds may be spread on fine screens or on a clean wooden floor to dry. When drying is completed they should be separated from the stems, cleaned, and stored in bags. The leaves lose most of their sweet aromatic flavor on drying.
Area(s) Found ~ Temperate zones. Versatile vegetation.
Use(s) ~ Fennel fruits are aromatic, stimulant, and carminative, resembling, in these particulars the fruits of anise, caraway, and dill. They are rarely used in substance, but more commonly in the form of the distilled water and the volatile oil. Fennel water is a useful remedy to relieve flatulence, and as a pleasant adjunct to other medicines to prevent griping, etc. The seeds can slightly reduce the appetite and is also good for helping the digestive system and milk producing glands. It also has mucus countering and pain relieving properties.
Reference ~ Unknown

Description ~ Fenugreek is an erect annual herb, growing about 2 feet high. The seeds are brownish, about 1/8 inch long, oblong, rhomboidal, with a deep furrow dividing them into two unequal lobes. They are contained, ten to twenty together, in long, narrow, sickle-like pods. 
Area(s) Found ~ All zones. Most prominent in sub-tropics.
Use(s) ~ A thick paste made by soaking the seeds in water till they swell is said to be equal to quinine in preventing fevers; is comforting to the stomach and has been utilized for diabetes. Fenugreek is used as an appetizer, a tonic and an aphrodisiac, and it is included in many foods and beverages. Fenugreek has a long history of dubious indications, including fevers, colic, flatulence, dyspepsia, dysentery, cough, tuberculosis, edema, rickets, leg ulcers, gout, diabetes and baldness. There is little evidence to suggest the spice is toxic or that it has significant anticoagulant or hormonal effects. Ground seeds give off a maple-flavoring.
Reference ~ Unknown

Frankincense and Myrrh
Description ~ Frankincense and myrrh are both resins -- dried tree sap -- that come from separate, but similar varieties of leafy forest trees. Has deciduous leaves that alternate towards the tops of branches, unequally pinnated; leaflets in about ten pairs with an odd one opposite. Edges are serrated. Flowers are white or pale rose on short pedicels in single axillary, being shorter than the leaves. Fruit are hard capsular, three-angled three-celled, three-valved, septicidals. Seeds are solitary in each cell surrounded by a broad membranaceous wing. To obtain the Frankincense, a deep, longitudinal incision is made in the trunk of the tree and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 inches in length is peeled off. When the milk-like juice that exudes has hardened by exposure to the air, the incision is deepened. In about three months the resin has attained the required degree of consistency, hardening into yellowish 'tears.' The large, clear globules are scraped off into baskets and the inferior quality that has run down the tree is collected separately.
Area(s) Found ~ Dry, desert areas. Ideal for the Tahari. 
Use(s) ~ Primary use as an aromatic in perfumes, incense, etc. Has some mild anti-bacterial properties which make them effective for soaps, mouthwashes, tooth pastes, etc.
Reference ~ Unknown

Garlic (aka Allium)
Description ~ No specific Gorean description offered. Garlic produces a number of small bulbs called cloves, rather than one large bulb. Each bulb contains a dozen or more cloves, and is covered with a thin white skin. The larger outer cloves produce the best garlic. Garlic has flat leaves and a strong and characteristic odor. The fine, young leaves of sprouted garlic bulbils look like newly sprouted grass. The foliage has a fresh garlic flavor and is excellent when used in salads.
Area(s) Found ~ Garlic thrives in mild climates, yet it is an adaptable species and can be found world-wide.
Use(s) ~ Its oils are effective against both Gram-positive bacteria (such as staphylococcal and streptococcal infections), Gram-negative and acid-fast organisms; most effective in lowering elevated blood sugar levels as well as moderating high blood pressure; the oil penetrates skin readily and moves through the bloodstream quickly. Garlic is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that combats bacteria, intestinal parasites and viruses. In high doses it has cured encephalitis. Lowers blood pressure and blood cholesterol, discourages dangerous blood clotting. Two or three cloves a day cut the odds of subsequent heart attacks in half in heart patients. Contains multiple anti-cancer compounds and antioxidants.Lessens chances of stomach cancer in particular. A good cold medication. Acts as a decongestant, expectorant, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory agent. Boosts immune responses. Helps relieve gas, has anti-diarrheal, estrogenic and diuretic activity. Appears to lift mood and has a mild calming effect. High doses of raw garlic (more than three cloves a day) have caused gas, bloating, diarrhea and fever in some. Aged garlic may be better than cooked garlic. 
Reference ~ I have peas and turnips, garlic and onions in my hut.
~ Outlaw of Gor, page 29

(Colored) Grass
Description ~ Typical long bladed grass, displayed in a variety of colors ranging from yellow-orange to blue and violet.
Area(s) Found ~ Everywhere. Color and conditioning depends upon climate. 
Use(s) ~ Rich source of vitamins and minerals, encourages oxidation of the blood. Effective diuretic to purge impurities from the body. 
Reference ~ He picked up a stalk of a patch of violet grass, one of several hues used in such gardens, and began to chew on it ...He made his way across some dark blue and yellowish orange grass and came to the buildings set against one wall of the gardens.
~ Nomads of Gor, page 216-217, 219

Description ~ An annual herb which grows 3 to 10 feet tall and has hairy leaves divided into 5 to 7 serrated leaflets; the leaves are often sticky with resin. The plants are distinctively male or female, based upon flowering. 
Area(s) Found ~ Warm climates. 
Use(s) ~ Although the main interest most have in the female cannabis plant centers on its euphoric properties, the plant dos have medicinal properties which includes being used as a analgesic-hypnotic, topical anesthetic, antiasthmatic, antibiotic, antiepileptic and antispasmodic, antidepressant and tranquilizer, appetite stimulant, oxyocic, preventive and anodyne for neuralgia (including migraine), aid to psychotherapy and agent to ease withdrawal from alcohol and opiates (like kanda). The euphoric substances of cannabis (TCH) are found particularly in resins contained in the upper leaves and the bracts of the female flowers and buds. Rather than smoked in Earthen tradition, hemp would be formed into “smudge sticks” and burned as incense.
Reference ~ ... a Gorean long bow of supple Ka-la-na wood, from the yellow wine trees of Gor, tipped with notched bosk horn at each end, loose strung with hemp whipped with silk, and a roll of sheaf and flight arrows.
~ Raiders of Gor, page 2

Description ~ No specific Gorean description offered. Sticky sweet ooze produced by bees. Honey ranges from dark to light amber in color.
Area(s) Found ~ Mentioned both in far North and far South areas of Gor.
Use(s) ~ Honey has strong antibiotic properties. Has sleep-inducing, sedative and tranquilizing properties. Use sparingly as it is high in sugar. Raw Honey - An Anti-Bacterial, Anti-Viral, Anti-Fungal Substance. Truly raw honey contains bits of propolis, a combination of tree sap and honeybee secretions that bees spread around the honeycomb as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-fungal substance. Given the physicality of most Goreans, honey is a particularly beneficial substance. It is an aid that increases athletic performance and is a wound healing agent. Honey can be used topically as an antiseptic, therapeutic agent for the treatment of ulcers, burns and wounds. Because honey is composed mainly of glucose and fructose, two sugars that strongly attract water, honey absorbs water in the wound, drying it out so that the growth of bacteria and fungi is inhibited. Secondly, raw honey contains an enzyme that, when combined with water, produces hydrogen peroxide, a mild antiseptic. In addition to the specific enzymes found in honey, which may help in the healing process, honey also contains antioxidants and flavonoids that may function as antibacterial agents. Can also be used as a sweetener. 
Reference ~ I saw small fruit trees, and hives, where honey bees were raised; and there were small sheds, here and there, with sloping roofs of boards; in some such sheds might craftsmen work, in others fish might be dried or butter made. 
~Marauders of Gor, page 81